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    Explained: The formula to elect Rajya Sabha members

    Explained: The formula to elect Rajya Sabha members

    Explained: The formula to elect Rajya Sabha members
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    By CNBCTV18.com  IST (Published)

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    Rajya Sabha MPs are elected through the proportional representation process with the single transferable vote (STV) system. The Rajya Sabha has 245 members and the majority mark stands at 123.

    The Rajya Sabha election to fill vacant seats will take place on June 10. The elections will be held for 57 seats across 15 states. This biennial election this time is crucial as the Presidential elections are due in July. Seven seats of nominated members are also vacant.
    The Rajya Sabha has 245 members, the majority mark stands at 123. So how does the Rajya Sabha elevate its members? When are the elections held and who votes in them?
    The Rajya Sabha
    India's parliamentary system is directly modelled after the one in England. The Parliament is split in two houses — the upper house and the lower house. The lower house, the Lok Sabha and the House of Commons, has its members elected directly by the citizens in general elections. The results of this election decide who forms the government in the country. The upper house, the Rajya Sabha in India and the House of Lords in the UK, has its members elected indirectly.
    Just like the Lok Sabha, each state is allocated a certain number of candidates in the Rajya Sabha based on its population. Whenever a new state is created or multiple states are merged, the makeup of the Rajya Sabha also changes. However, as per the Constitution there is an upper limit to the number of members in the Rajya Sabha — 250. Currently there are 245 members (including vacancies) in the House, with 12 of these members being nominated by the President.
    The term of a Rajya Sabha MP is six years instead of the five of a Lok Sabha MP, and elections for 33 percent of the seats are held every two years.
    Election Process
    Rajya Sabha MPs are elected through the proportional representation process with the single transferable vote (STV) system.
    In this system, instead of directly voting for each seat, the Lok Sabha MPs list all the candidates standing for election in order of preference for being elected.
    In case a Rajya Sabha candidate is selected as the first preference by 10 or more Lok Sabha members, they are directly elected.
    Each candidate needs one-fourth of the total vote plus one to be elected. Though, the actual formula is slightly more complicated — 
    The votes are then calculated for each candidate standing for election based on the preference list made by the Lok Sabha MPs. In case, a candidate has already won (by being the first preference of 10 or more members or by acquiring enough votes), then the vote of the MP is transferred to their second choice. If the second choice has similarly confirmed to win or has absolutely no chance of winning, then the vote is transferred to the next preference one more. The process is repeated until all candidates are elected or out of the running.
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